Ultrafiltration (UF) involves pressure-driven separation of materials from a feed solution. The technology is used to remove particulate and microbial contaminants, but it does not remove ions and small molecules. UF plants are automated and have low operational labour requirements. UF membranes have a service life of three to five years or longer, which is comparable to reverse osmosis membranes. UF modules are commercially available in tubular, hollow-fibre, plate and frame, and spiral wound configurations.
Post-treatment is the treatment of water after the main treatment process is completed. Post-treatment processes include chlorination, pH adjustment and mineralisation of permeate.
Pre-treatment is the physical, chemical or mechanical process used on water before it undergoes the main treatment process. Pre-treatment is essential to ensure the sustainability, economic viability and life of the main filtration process. The type of pre-treatment is always dependent on the water quality specification requirements of the main treatment.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a process where water is demineralised by using pressure to push the water through a semi-permeable membrane. RO is effective in treating brackish, surface and ground water. Sagisa designs and builds RO systems for applications such as boiler feed water, pharmaceutical, food service as well as the food and beverage industry.